JBPHPD: Res, Educ and Policy, Volume 4, Number 2 (2011)
1. Barriers to nursing education for Native American high school students
Shelia Chapman, EDD, RN
Native Americans are the least represented of all minorities in US schools of nursing and the nursing workforce. Despite numerous efforts and strategies for recruiting and retaining Native Americans in nursing education, there has only been a slight increase in the Native American student nurses in the past decade. The shortage of Native American nurses in the workforce reflects this problem. The purpose of this qualitative study was to learn about barriers to nursing education from a select group of Native American high school seniors who expressed the desire to pursue nursing education. This study reflects the perceptions and experiences of seven Native American high school students through the analysis of qualitative interviews. An analysis of these interviews revealed five major barriers to nursing education: (1) insufficient knowledge about nursing as a career; (2) inadequate academic preparation in high school; (3) inadequate knowledge of financial resources available; (4) concerns and experiences with racism, negative stereotyping, and lack of cultural self-esteem; and (5) ambivalence about leaving the Tribe to attend nursing school. It is hoped that this study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about barriers to nursing education for Native American high school students and will contribute to future research on similar topics.
Keywords: Native American barriers; high school; nursing education; higher education
2. Forgotten pieces of the prevention puzzle: Developing theory-driven HIV prevention programs for Black heterosexual men
Nikia D. Braxton, MPH; Jerris L. Raiford, PHD; Puja Seth, PHD; Adannaa O. Alexander, MPH; Ralph J. DiClemente, PHD; Gina M. Wingood, SCD
African American men are disproportionately affected by HIV, but few evidence-based HIV interventions exist. Formative research was conducted in order to adapt an HIV intervention for self-identified heterosexual African American men. This paper describes the adaptation methodology, intervention, and baseline results for 80 heterosexual African American men who participated in the two-session intervention pilot, which addressed HIV preventive skills and behaviors along with social and contextual factors that affect risk. Results indicated that 66 percent reported concurrent partnering in the past year and 80 percent used condoms inconsistently. A framework for designing an HIV intervention for African American men is provided. Efficacious HIV interventions have been evaluated and implemented for African American women, but given the reported high-risk behavior among this sample, the findings highlight the need for culturally tailored interventions for African American men.
Keywords: African American men; risky sexual behavior; HIV prevention; adaptation
3. Perceived barriers to Hispanic youths’ entry into a career in nursing
Judy Neubrander, EDD, FNP-BC, CNE; Vincent P. Hall, RN, PHD, CNE
The National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice has established the need for a diverse nursing workforce. Studies have shown that the care provided by nurses who do not understand their clients’ cultural language, ethnicity, and customs can lead to poor health outcomes. In recent years, western North Carolina has experienced a large influx of individuals of Latin American origins and, consequently, a significant increase in such patients presenting at healthcare facilities, without a concomitant increase in healthcare professionals of similar origins. This descriptive study explored perceived barriers to entering nursing as a profession among Hispanics. Using focus groups, it provided members of the western North Carolina Hispanic community an opportunity to express their views and needs related to entering the nursing profession. Results revealed three categories of perceived barriers: 1) lack of knowledge or guidance about nursing as a career, 2) cultural factors, and 3) need for financial support.
Keywords: Hispanic; diversity; barriers; nursing
4. Predictors of patient-provider racial/ethnic concordance among older health service users
Karon L. Phillips, PHD, MPH; David A. Chiriboga, PHD; Yuri Jang, PHD
The purpose of this paper is to examine the predictors of patient-provider racial/ethnic concordance. The sample comprised 2,075 adults aged 50 years and older, representing four racial/ethnic groups: non-Hispanic Whites (n=1,417), African Americans (AA) (n=330), Hispanics/Latinos (n=204), and Asian Americans (n=124). Female non-Hispanic Whites were significantly more likely to have a provider of the same race/ethnicity. Younger AAs were significantly less likely to have a provider of the same race/ethnicity. None of the sociodemographic variables were associated with concordance in the Hispanic/Latino group. Asian Americans who were married were approximately four times more likely to have a provider of the same race/ethnicity. Results from this study indicate that level of provider patient concordance varies by race/ethnicity and that the differences among racial/ethnic groups should be considered by healthcare facilities that serve older populations.
Keywords: patient-provider racial/ethnic concordance; minority; older adults’; diversity
5. Preparation for clinical laboratory practice: A practitioners’ point of view to enhance students’ experiences and workforce needs
Georgia McCauley, PHD, MT(AMT), CRA; Jeffery A. Meixner, PHD, CLSP(MB); George Harwell, EDD, MT(ASCP)SC, CLS; Elijah O. Onsomu, MS, MPH, PHD, CHES
Effective communication is essential between clinical laboratory science (CLS) educators who prepare students for clinical practice experiences and clinical laboratory practitioners. The clinical practice experience is the primary pedagogy of CLS education. This study measured clinical laboratory practitioners’ perceptions of student preparedness for the clinical practice setting. Participants (A-J)* were asked, “If you could suggest one thing to CLS educators to better prepare CLS students for clinical practice, what it would be?” Based on their feedback, brief pre- and post-surveys were administered to students in the CLS program at a Historically Black College/University (HBCU). Results were used to enhance student preparation for clinical practice by instituting curricular changes. Clinical Laboratory Science programs should consider continuous curricular changes based on ongoing assessments of changing workplace needs.
*A-J are pseudonyms for participant responses
Keywords: clinical practice; clinical laboratory science; education; communication; Q methodology
6. The influence of sociosexuality and perceived susceptibility on the sexual behavior of African American college students
Naomi M. Hall, PHD, MPH; Daphne D. Witherspoon, BA
Sociosexuality is a personality dimension believed to be associated with the extent to
which one endorses permissive sexual behavior. Sociosexuality and perceived susceptibility to HIV infection were examined as psychosocial predictors of sexual behavior among African American college students. A diverse sample (n=57) aged 18-25 (M=20.76, SD=1.49) from a historically Black institution completed self-report measures examining their attitudes and behavior related to sex and HIV risk and transmission. Results show varying levels of sociosexuality, with men reporting significantly higher levels than women, t(50) = 3.41, p =.001). Sociosexuality was a significant predictor of perceived susceptibility to contracting HIV, F(1, 55) = 8.92, p = .04), and overall sexual behavior, F(1, 55) = 4.78, p = .033). Sociosexuality also predicted students’ self-reported HIV concern, F(3, 49) = 2.88, p = .045, and HIV risk, F(4, 48) = 4.78, p = .011. The need to include personality variables associated with risky sexual behavior in health promotion and intervention studies is imperative. The integration of cultural and environmental factors influencing sexual partnerships and behavior is emphasized for optimal long-term behavior change.
Keywords: sociosexual orientation; college students’; African American; sex; HIV/AIDS
7. Incorporating the Spanish language in a health sciences curriculum
Faye M. Cobb, PHD, PT; Darlene Perez-Brown, PHD, OTR/L; Tika H. Owens, MA
This paper focuses on collaboration between educators from the foreign languages and health sciences departments to develop and offer a course that provides contextual Spanish to undergraduate health science students. It identifies best practice guidelines to determine why, what, and how students should learn contextual Spanish. Further research is needed to determine the impact of contextual Spanish and effective communication among recent healthcare graduates.
Keywords: cultural competency; healthcare; Hispanic patients’; Spanish
8. Skloot, R. (2010). The immortal life of Henrietta Lacks. New York, NY: Crown Publishers
Book Reviewed by Frankie D. Powell, PHD
9. Provision of preventive healthcare services through a mobile health clinic in East Winston-Salem, North Carolina
Letter to the Editor by Jennifer N. Haynes, BSN, MSN(C), RN
JBPHPD: Res, Educ and Policy, Volume 4, Number 1 (2011)
1. Entertainment-education for starting HIV/AIDS discussions and reducing stigma: African American college students’ reactions to the film Yesterday
DaKysha Moore, MS, PHD; Elijah O. Onsomu, MS, MPH, PHD, CHES; Benta A. Abuya, MA, PHD
Entertainment-education is a media tool used to reduce the spread and stigma associated with HIV/AIDS. This pilot study explored how African American (AA) college students understood stigma as portrayed in the South African film Yesterday. Data were collected through a focus group where four major themes emerged. One is “we can talk, but please do not touch.” The study shows that films on HIV/AIDS that feature people of African descent can be used to generate classroom discussions and promote positive attitudes about HIV/AIDS among AA students.
Keywords: HIV/AIDS; entertainment-education; African American; students; South Africa
2. A call to address learner diversity in health professions education
Gina DeCelle, MSN, RN; Dennis Sherrod, EDD, RN
In today’s teaching and learning environments, knowledge, understanding, and incorporation of strategies to address diverse adult learning styles are crucial to success. Educators must develop self-awareness and appreciation of teacher and student origins of knowing and cultural, social, and motivational contexts to harmonize personal teaching styles with adult learning styles. This essay examines adult learning theories to identify methods to connect teaching strategies to diverse needs in health professions education. Andragogy, self-directed, transformative, and experiential learning as well as Western and non-Western ways of knowing are applied to adult learning styles. Comprehending and integrating these theories into personal teaching approaches can transform learning in classroom and clinical settings and promote development of a diverse health professions workforce.
Keywords: diversity; adult learning; allied health; health professions; education
3. Accommodation strategies for health sciences students with disabilities
Veronica Jackson,DPT, PT; DeAnna L. Henderson, PHD, LPC, CRC; Dothel W. Edwards Jr., RHD, CRC, CLCP; Greshundria M. Raines, OTD, MPA, OTR/L
The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 have increased educational and employment opportunities for students with disabilities. These regulations protect individuals who are seeking higher education. Admissions committees of health science professional programs must consider these regulations when developing admissions criteria, academic curricula, clinical internships, and employment opportunities. Students cannot be denied access to education at a public-serving entity that receives federal funding. Students who have documented disabilities have the burden to safely perform an educational program’s requirements, and faculty must take an active role in facilitating accommodation strategies for them. This paper considers accommodation strategies for admissions, academic curricula, clinical internship placement, and employment.
Keywords: accommodations; disabilities; health sciences; students
4. Impact of paying healthcare facilities as clinical internship sites on diversity in clinical practice
Teresa Conner-Kerr, PT, PHD, CWS, CLT; Sharon Prybylo, PT, DPT
Physical Therapy education is in transition. Most programs are grappling with the best models for clinical education. Clinical sites are in increased demand due to the expansion of existing and proliferation of new academic programs. In addition, fewer clinical internships are offered due to decreased insurance reimbursements and increased clinician shortages. This paper discusses the implications of a new clinical education model on access to clinical internships for students from diverse or disadvantaged backgrounds.
Keywords: physical therapy; clinical education; paid clinical internship; human
5. Multidisciplinary collaborative teaching approach in health sciences programs at historically Black colleges and universities
Dothel W. Edwards Jr., RHD, CRC, CLCP; Veronica Jackson, DPT, PT; Greshundria M. Raines, OTD, MPA, OTR/L; DeAnna L. Henderson, PHD, LPC, CRC; Yolanda V. Edwards, PHD, CRC
Practicing health sciences professionals may feel insufficiently trained in such critical areas as coping with diversity, working in teams, practicing prevention, and effectively using community resources. The goal of multidisciplinary collaborative teaching is to expose students early to other disciplines in the rehabilitation process. In most rehabilitation facilities, a multidisciplinary team of professionals works together to offer optimal patient/consumer care that yields optimal outcomes. This article provides health sciences educators with a conceptual overview of the importance of multidisciplinary collaborative teaching and its potential benefits for admissions, academic curricula, clinical internship placement, and employment.
Keywords: HBCUS; interdisciplinary; allied health; rehabilitation counseling; accreditation
6. Unknown unknowns: Health, healthcare, and the future
Fred Donini-Lenhoff, MA
The passage in 2010 of landmark healthcare system legislation has occasioned much political posturing, demagoguery, and misinformation. Legislative efforts to improve healthcare are essential, but equally if not more important are community-based (and individual) initiatives to attack our public health problems at their roots. As one of the nation’s leading healthcare organizations, the American Medical Association (AMA) is working on multiple fronts to ensure preventive health measures that are patient-friendly, cost-effective, and quality-driven.
Keywords: healthcare; medical education; disparities; healthcare law; chronic conditions
7. Status and trends in the education of racial and ethnic groups
Report Reviewed by Sharyn Conrad, DNP, RN, FNP-BC; Dionne Roberts, PHD, RN, FNP-C; Hartensia Davis-Bailey, MSN, RN
JBPHPD: Res, Educ and Policy Editorial Office
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